PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS (PPE)
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS (PPE)
Personal Protective Equipments (PPE) are equipment worn by workers to minimize exposure to specific occupation hazards.
· In health facility it is defined as physical barriers that help to prevent the spread of microorganisms from
ü Person to person
ü Equipment/instrument and environmental surface to people
· Using PPE is only one element towards complete safety at work, it doesn’t guarantee a permanent or total protection but it reduces the chance of being affected while at work.
PRINCIPLES ON WHEN TO APPLY PPE
§ Pre – contact control ( the first and most important method because it prevents the hazard from reaching the workers), include :
o Substituting materials or process with that which are less hazardous.
o Isolating from hazardous process
o Acquiring safe equipment
§ Point of contact control
o Direct application of PPE
o It is used when the pre – contact control are totally effective
o In health facilities, the daily practice is in this category and therefore the PPE is very important.
TYPES OF PPE USED IN PROVIDING HEALTH CARE SERVICES
Types of equipment used in providing care are :
IMPORTANCE OF PPE
§ Control hazards at the source
§ Isolate hazards from workers
§ Additional of safety features to the existing equipment
§ Facilitate redesigning of the work processes or purchasing new equipment
UTILIZATION OF PPE IN PROVISION OF SUPPORTIVE SERVICES
Uses of PPE in Providing Supportive Services
GOWNS OR A DISPOSABLE COVERALL
ü Gowns shall be used for protective isolation
ü To keep hair and scalp covered so that flakes of skin and hair are not shed into the wound during surgery.
ü Protect clothing or skin from contamination.
ü To protect feet from injury
ü Protect contamination from blood and other body fluids
ü To protect respiratory tract from infection
ü Prevent accidental splashes of blood/body fluid entering the nose mouth of health provider.
ü Prevent droplet infection from health provider to the client
ü To protects health provider in the event of an accident splash or blood or other contaminated fluids by covering the eyes.
ü Examination gloves shall be worn during the following:-
§ For examination and non – surgical procedures
§ Contact with blood or body fluid anticipated
§ Handling visibly soiled items
§ When health worker has non – intact skin
§ Surgical gloves shall be worn for surgical invasive procedures only
§ During phlebotomy procedures
§ Performing surgical procedures
§ Handling specimens
§ Cleaning of hospital/Laboratory environments
§ Performing Laboratory tests
These gloves are used for decontamination of large equipment, cleaning floors, walls, furniture such as beds etc
Gloves shall be changed between care activities and procedures with the same patient when soiled or contaminated
PROCEDURE OF WEARING AND REMOVING PPE
§ Always put on essential required PPE when handling either a suspect, probable or confirmed case of viral hemorrhagic fever ( eg. HIV Disease )
§ Gather all necessary items of the PPE beforehand.
§ The dressing and undressing of PPE should be supervised by another trained member of the team
§ These instructions should be displayed on the wall in the dressing and undressing room.
§ Steps to put on essential required PPE
§ Put on the scrub suit in the changing room.
steps in wearing Gloves
ü Put gloves on clean, washed hands
ü Remove all jewelry ( rings ,etc ) from hands
ü Take a pair of clean gloves from the box
ü Check to see if there is any tear or breaks
ü Put on gloves according to the corresponding hand
ü Remove gloves by grasping the cuff and turning each glove inside – out as you remove it.
(Be careful not to touch the outside surface of your glove with bare hands)
ü Dispose of gloves in a proper receptacle.
ü Wash hands immediately after taking off the gloves.
GOWN AND APRON, OR A DISPOSABLE COVERALL AND APRON
§ Avoid unnecessary use of gowns
§ Gowns shall be used for protective isolation
§ Don’t wear gowns outside work area
§ Wear long gowns to protect uncovered skin and protect clothes
§ Clinical coats and scrub suits shouldn’t be worn outside work area, don’t transfer them to homes
§ Prepare the surgical mask
§ Cover the mouth
§ Tidy the rope of mask on the head
§ All these is to protect respiratory tract infection
ü To protect eye infection
§ To keep hair and scalp covered so that flakes of skin and hair are not shed into the wound during surgery.
§ Should be large enough to cover all hair.
§ Protect both patient and healthcare worker from splashes of blood and body fluids.
PUT ON BOOTS OR BOOTS UNAVAILABLE
If not available, male sure you have closed, puncture and fluid resistant shoes and put on overshoes.
STEPS TO REMOVE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Peel off plastic apron and dispose of safety ( if the apron is to be reused, place in a container with disinfectant)
Peep off plastic apron, If wearing protective overshoes, please remove them with your gloves still on ( if wearing gums boots)
Remove boots, Remove gown and gloves and roll inside – out and dispose of safety ( If wearing a head covering, remove it now from behind head )
Remove face protection
Remove face shield or goggles ( from behind head ). Place eye protection in a separate container for reprocessing.
Remove mask from behind head. When removing mask, untie the bottom string first and the top string next.